Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe https://www.efxkits.co.uk Buy Electronic Kits & Electrical Projects in Russia, France, Spain, Sweden, Germany, Norway, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Denmark and the rest of Europe. Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:32:46 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Explanation of Silicon Controlled Rectifier and Its Applications https://www.efxkits.co.uk/silicon-controlled-rectifier-applications/ https://www.efxkits.co.uk/silicon-controlled-rectifier-applications/#respond Thu, 22 Feb 2018 08:19:59 +0000 https://www.efxkits.co.uk/?p=1763 In general, we use a lot of electrical and electronic components while making the circuits and electronics projects. The basic components mainly include resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes, LEDs, inductors, thyristors or SCR (silicon controlled rectifiers), ICs (integrated circuits), and so on. Let us think the rectifiers which are categorized into two types namely diodes (uncontrolled […]

The post Explanation of Silicon Controlled Rectifier and Its Applications appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Silicon Controlled Rectifier

In general, we use a lot of electrical and electronic components while making the circuits and electronics projects. The basic components mainly include resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes, LEDs, inductors, thyristors or SCR (silicon controlled rectifiers), ICs (integrated circuits), and so on. Let us think the rectifiers which are categorized into two types namely diodes (uncontrolled rectifiers) and thyristors (controlled rectifiers). Actually, many engineering students, electronic hobbyists wish to know the basic function of an electrical and electronics components. But, here in this article gives an overview of the silicon controlled rectifier and its characteristics.

What is a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)?

The SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) or Thyristor is a multilayer semiconductor device and is comparable to the transistor. SCR consists of 3-terminals namely anode, cathode, and gate not like the two terminal diode rectifiers which consist of two terminals namely anode and cathode. The diodes are called as uncontrolled rectifiers as they perform whenever the anode voltage of the diode is superior to cathode voltage (during forward bias condition without any control).

Diode and Thyristor

Diode and Thyristor

But, the SCR doesn’t perform even though the anode voltage is superior to the cathode voltage unless until the gate terminal is activated. Thus, by providing the activating pulse to the gate terminal, we can manage the operation of the thyristor. Hence, the thyristor is also named as the controlled rectifier or silicon controlled rectifier.

Basics of Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Unlike 2-layers in the diode (P-N), 3-layers in transistors (P-N-P or N-P-N), and the silicon controlled rectifier consists of four layers (P-N-P-N) with three PN junctions that are allied in series. The symbol of the SCR or thyristor is shown in the following figure.

Basics of Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Basics of Silicon Controlled Rectifier

SCR is also a unidirectional device as it performs only in one direction. By activating properly, the thyristor can be utilized as an open circuit switch and also as a rectifying diode. But, the thyristor cannot be used as an amplifier; it can be used only for switching process controlled by triggering pulse of the gate terminal.

The manufacturing of the Thyristor can be done using a variety of materials like silicon, gallium arsenide, silicon carbide, gallium nitride, and so on. But, the superior thermal conductivity, high voltage capability, high capability of current, economical processing of Si has made it choose compared to other materials for manufacturing thyristors, hence, they are also named as silicon controlled rectifiers.

Silicon Controlled Rectifier Working

The working of thyristor can be understood by considering the three states modes of process of SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) such as

  • Reverse blocking mode
  • Forward blocking mode
  • Forward conducting mode
Current Flow and Voltage Bias in an SCR

Current Flow and Voltage Bias in an SCR

Reverse Blocking Mode

If we reverse the connections of the thyristors, then the upper and lower diodes are reverse biased. Thus, there is no transmission path, so there is no flow of current. Hence, this is called as reverse blocking mode.

Forward Blocking Mode

Generally, without any activating pulse to the gate terminal, SCR remains switched off, representing no flow of current in the forward direction. This is because; the connected two diodes together will form a thyristor. But, the connection between these diodes is reverse biased, which reduces the current flow from top to bottom. Hence, this state is called as the forward blocking mode. In this mode, even though thyristor is including condition like a conventional forward biased diode, it will not perform as the gate terminal is not activated.

Forward Conducting Mode

In this mode, the anode voltage should be superior to the cathode voltage and the gate terminal must be activated properly for the transmission of the thyristor. This is because, when the gate terminal is activated, then the lower transistor will perform which switches ON the upper transistor and then the upper transistor switches ON the lower transistor and thus the transistors triggers each other. This procedure of inner positive feedback of both the transistors recurs until both get fully triggered and then the flow of current will from the anode to the cathode. So, this form of operation of SCR is called as forward conduction mode.

Characteristics of Silicon Controlled Rectifier

The figure shows the silicon controlled rectifier characteristics and also represents the thyristor operation in three different modes such as reverse blocking mode, forward blocking mode, and forward conducting mode. The V-I characteristics of thyristor also represent the reverse blocking voltage, forward blocking voltage, reverse breakdown voltage, holding current, break-over voltage, and so on as shown in the figure.

Silicon Controlled Rectifier Characteristics

Silicon Controlled Rectifier Characteristics

Silicon Controlled Rectifier Applications

The SCR applications include the following

  • Application of SCR includes in the circuits which deal with large currents and voltages like electrical power system circuits with more than 1kV or larger than 100A of current.
  • These are particularly used to decrease the interior power loss in the circuit.using on-off switching control of the thyristors.
  • SCRs are also used for modification purpose, i.e., from alternating current to direct current. Usually, thyristors are used in cyclo converters (AC to AC converters) which is the most general application.

Thus, this is all about Silicon Controlled Rectifier, working, characteristics and its applications. SCRs can be used in AC power control, controlled bridge rectifiers, DC powered transmission, power electronic devices, etc. Do you want to design projects based on thyristors? Then, post your ideas in the comments section below for our technical support in designing your engineering projects.

 

The post Explanation of Silicon Controlled Rectifier and Its Applications appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
https://www.efxkits.co.uk/silicon-controlled-rectifier-applications/feed/ 0
Difference Between CMOS and NMOS Technology https://www.efxkits.co.uk/difference-cmos-nmos-technology/ https://www.efxkits.co.uk/difference-cmos-nmos-technology/#respond Sat, 20 Jan 2018 06:22:10 +0000 https://www.efxkits.co.uk/?p=1742 The most popular semiconductor technology (MOSFET technology) obtainable today is the CMOS technology. The term CMOS stands for complementary MOS technology. This is the most important semiconductor technology for ASICs, microprocessors, memories, etc. The main benefit of CMOS technology over NMOS and Bipolar technology is the power dissipation – when the circuit activates then only […]

The post Difference Between CMOS and NMOS Technology appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
CMOS Technology and NMOS Technology

CMOS Technology and NMOS Technology

The most popular semiconductor technology (MOSFET technology) obtainable today is the CMOS technology. The term CMOS stands for complementary MOS technology. This is the most important semiconductor technology for ASICs, microprocessors, memories, etc. The main benefit of CMOS technology over NMOS and Bipolar technology is the power dissipation – when the circuit activates then only the power dissipates. This allows fitting several CMOS gates on an IC (integrated circuit) than in Bipolar & NMOS technology. This article discusses the CMOS and NMOS technology difference and its advantages.

What is IC Technology?

The Si-IC technology can be categorized into three types namely: Bipolar, MOS (Metal oxide semiconductor) and BiCMOS.

The construction of the bipolar transistors has PNP or NPN structures. In these kinds of transistors, the tiny amount of current in the solid base layer controls huge currents between the terminals of an emitter and collector. Base currents limit the additional density of the bipolar devices.

IC Tecchnology

IC Tecchnology

Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) is further divided into different technologies beneath NMOS, PMOS, and CMOS. These technologies comprise a semiconductor, a metal gate, and oxide. At present, Polysilicon is generally used as a gate terminal. When the voltage is applied to the gate terminal, then it controls the flow of current between the terminals of source and drain. Since they use less power, and metal oxide semiconductor permits higher integration.

BiCMOS Technology can be built with the CMOS and Bipolar transistors; these are incorporated on the similar semiconductor chip. CMOS technology gives high input and low output impedance, symmetrical noise margins, high packing density, and low power dissipation. BiCMOS technology has finished it possible to unite bipolar devices and CMOS transistors in a single process at a sensible cost to get the high-density integration of MOS logic

CMOS and NMOS technology Difference

The CMOS and NMOS technology difference can be simply distinguished with their working principles, advantages, and disadvantages as discussed.

Differences between CMOS and NMOS Technology

Differences between CMOS and NMOS Technology

CMOS Technology

CMOS technology is used in digital logic circuits to construct ICs, microprocessors, static RAM, microcontrollers. This technology is also used in numerous analog circuits like image sensors, data converters, and in highly integrated transceivers. The main features of this technology are high noise immunity and low static power consumption.

CMOS Technology

CMOS Technology

When the pair of transistors is in OFF condition, the grouping of series draws important power only throughout switching between ON & OFF states. So, MOS devices do not generate as much dissipate heat as other types of logic. For instance, TTL or MOS logic have normally some standing current even when not the varying state. This permits a high density of logic tasks on a chip. Due to this cause, CMOS technology is most widely used and is executed in VLSI chips.

Advantages of CMOS Technology

CMOS technology devices are used in a variety of applications with analog circuits such as data converters, image sensors, etc. The benefits of CMOS technology over NMOS technology include the following.

  • Static power consumption is very slow.
  • The complexity of the circuit reduces
  • High density of logic functions on a chip
  • Static power consumption is very low
  • High noise immunity

CMOS Inverter

For any IC technology, the logic inverter plays a vital role in the designing of a digital circuit, Once the process of an inverter circuit is cautiously understood, the consequences can be extended to the logic gates design and complex circuits.

CMOS-Inverter

CMOS-Inverter

CMOS inverters are MOSFET inverters, which are most widely used in chip design. These inverters can function at high-speed and with less power loss. Also, this inverter has good logic buffer characteristics. The small explanation of the inverters gives a basic understanding of the operation of the inverter. MOSFET states at different input voltages, and power failures due to electrical current.

A CMOS inverter has two transistors namely a PMOS transistor and an NMOS transistor that is connected to the gate and drain terminals, a VDD (voltage supply) at the PMOS source terminal, and a GND terminal connected to the NMOS source terminal, where input voltage is connected to the gate terminals and output terminal is connected to the drain terminals. It is significant to observe that the CMOS doesn’t have any resistors, which creates it more power capacity than a regular resistor MOSFET inverter.

As the voltage at the CMOS device input changes between 0 & 5 volts, the condition of the NMOS and PMOS changes accordingly. If we mold each transistor as an easy switch triggered by the input voltage, the inverter’s actions can be seen very simply.

NMOS Technology

The acronym of NMOS is negative channel metal oxide semiconductor; it is pronounced as en-moss. It is a kind of semiconductor that charges negatively. So that transistors are switched by the electrons movement. Indifference, Positive channel MOS -PMOS works by moving electron positions. NMOS technology is faster than PMOS.

NMOS Technology

NMOS Technology

NMOS Inverter

Inverter circuit o/ps a voltage representing the opposite logic-level to its i/p. The NMOS inverter diagram is shown below which constructed using a single NMOS transistor is coupled with a transistor.

NMOS-Inverter

NMOS-Inverter

Why CMOS Technology is Preferred Over NMOS Technology

CMOS stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor whereas NMOS is a negative channel metal oxide semiconductor. CMOS and NMOS are two logic families, where CMOS uses both MOS transistors and PMOS for design and NMOS use only field effect transistors for design.

CMOS is selected over NMOS for the designing of an embedded system. CMOS transmits both logic 0 logic 1 and NMOS only logic 1 i.e, VDD. The output after crossing through one, the NMOS gate would be VDD-Vt. So, CMOS technology is preferred.

In CMOS logic gates, a collection of n-type MOSFETs is located in a pull-down network between the low voltage power supply rail and the o/p. In its place of the load resistor of NMOS logic gates, CMOS has a set of P-type MOSFETs in a pull-up n/w between the high voltage rail and the o/p. Thus, if both transistors have their gates connected to the similar input, the p-type MOSFET will be ON when the n-type MOSFET is OFF, and vice-versa.

CMOS and NMOS both moved by the expansion in digital technologies, that are used to build the integrated circuits. Both are used in several digital logic circuits and functions, static RAM and microprocessors. These are used in analog circuits as data converters and image sensors and also used in Trans-receptors for several modes of telephone communication. While both have the similar function as transistors for both analog and digital circuits, but a lot of people still select the CMOS technology to the final for its many advantages.

As contrasted to the NMOS, the CMOS technology is top in excellence. Particularly, when it comes to its features like low-static power utilization & noise resistance, CMOS technology keeps energy and it does not generate heat. Though costly, a lot of people prefer the CMOS technology due to its difficult work of art that makes it tough for the black market to manufacture the technology used by the CMOS.

The CMOS and NMOS technology difference along with its inverters, differences are discussed in brief in this article. Thus, CMOS technology is top of the embedded system design. For a better understanding of this technology, please post your queries as your comments below.

 

The post Difference Between CMOS and NMOS Technology appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
https://www.efxkits.co.uk/difference-cmos-nmos-technology/feed/ 0
Different Types of Inductor and Its Applications https://www.efxkits.co.uk/different-types-of-inductors-working-applications/ https://www.efxkits.co.uk/different-types-of-inductors-working-applications/#respond Fri, 29 Dec 2017 10:20:41 +0000 https://www.efxkits.co.uk/?p=1723 There are various types of inductors are available in the market based on its ratings and sizes and ratings. Their physical sizes differ from small sizes to the enormous transformer, based on the AC frequency being used and power being handled. An Inductor is one of the basic electrical components used in much wider application […]

The post Different Types of Inductor and Its Applications appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
Types of Inductors

Types of Inductors

There are various types of inductors are available in the market based on its ratings and sizes and ratings. Their physical sizes differ from small sizes to the enormous transformer, based on the AC frequency being used and power being handled. An Inductor is one of the basic electrical components used in much wider application areas namely signal controlling, voltage stabilization, noise elimination, automobile operations, power electronic equipment, etc. At the present time, the designing improvement technique of an inductor enhances major performance on rest of the circuit.

Different Types of Inductors

An inductor is also termed as a coil, reactor, or choke, is a two-terminal electrical component used to build various electrical and electronic circuits. An inductor is used to store energy in the form of a magnetic field. It consists of a wire, generally twisted into a coil. When a current flows through it, energy will be stored temporarily in the coil. An extreme inductor is equivalent to a short circuit for DC and allows a reverse force to AC that depends on the frequency of the current.

Types of Inductors

Types of Inductors

A diverse electronic component used in an extensive range of applications needs various kinds of inductors. These are available in different sizes that include the wire wound and also multilayer inductors. Different sorts of inductors are power supply line inductors, high-frequency inductors, or power inductors, inductors for general circuits. Separation of the inductors is based on the kind of the core used as well as winding.

How Inductor Works?

An inductor is frequently referred to as AC resistor. It opposes the changes in the current and stores energy in the type of the magnetic field. These are very simple in assembly, comprising of the copper wire coils wounded on a core. This core might be air or magnetic. The applications of different types of inductors include in advanced applications like WPT (wireless power transfer).

How Inductors work

How Inductors work

Working of Inductor

Magnetic cores may be E-type or toroidal cores. Materials such as ceramic, powered iron, ferrite, are used for this core. The coil-carrying the electric current produces the magnetic field around the conductor. Additional magnetic lines are generated if the core is located inside the coil offered high permeability of the core is used. The magnetic field stimulates EMF in the coil which results in a flow of current. According to Lenz’s law, the induced current resists the cause, which is the applied voltage.

Hence inductor opposes the variations in input current that guides to change in the magnetic field. This decrease of the current flow due to the induction is named inductive reactance. This will boost if the number of rolls in the coil is improved. It also stores the energy as magnetic field through charging and discharging processes and releases the energy while switching the circuit. Application areas of inductors include analog circuits, signal processing, etc.

Air Core Inductor

In air core inductor, the core is completely not present and gives high reluctance pathway for the magnetic flux, thus less inductance. These types of inductors have superior coils to generate higher flux densities. The applications of Air Core Inductor include in high-frequency applications such as TV and also radio receivers.

Air Core Inductor

Air Core Inductor

Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors

Ferro Magnetic or Iron Core Inductors have high inductance property due to their higher magnetic permeability. These types of inductors are high power inductors but incomplete in higher frequency capacity due to the current losses namely eddy and hysteresis. The best example of these types of inductors is transformer designs.

Iron Core Inductor

Iron Core Inductor

Ferrite Core Inductors

These are the different types of inductors which offer advantages of decreased cost and low core losses at high frequencies. Ferrite is a metal oxide ceramic based on a mixture of Ferric Oxide Fe2O3. Soft ferrites are used for the core construction to reduce the hysteresis losses.

Ferrite Core Inductor

Ferrite Core Inductor

Toroidal Core Inductors

In toroidal core inductors, a coil is wounded on a toroid circular former. Flux leakage is very low in this type of inductor. However special winding machines are required to design this type of inductor. Sometimes ferrite core is also used to decrease the losses in this design.

Torodial Core Inductor

Toroidal Core Inductor

Bobbin based Inductors

In Bobbin based Inductors, the coil is wounded on the bobbin. Bobbin wound inductor designs vary widely in terms of power rating, voltage and current levels, operating frequency, etc. These are mostly used in switch mode power supplies and power conversion applications.

Bobbin Based Inductor

Bobbin Based Inductor

Multi-Layer Inductors

A multilayer inductor includes two conductive coil patterns which are set in two layers in the upper part of a multi-layered body. The coils of this inductor are connected electrically in a successive manner in series to two more conductive coil patterns inclined in the lower part of the multi-layered body. The application of multilayer inductors includes mobile communication systems and also noise suppression applications.

Multilayer Inductor

Multilayer Inductor

Thin Film Inductors

Thin film inductors are entirely different from the usual chip-type inductors which wound with copper wire. In this type of inductors, minute inductors are shaped using thin-film processing to make the chip inductor for high-frequency (ranges from about nano Henry) applications.

Thin Film Inductor

Thin Film Inductor

I hope this article has been useful and intriguing. So here is a basic question for you –What is the function of inductors in electrical circuits? Please give your answer in the comment section below. You also feel free to share your perceptions about this article and ideas.

 

The post Different Types of Inductor and Its Applications appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
https://www.efxkits.co.uk/different-types-of-inductors-working-applications/feed/ 0
8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Function and its Applications https://www.efxkits.co.uk/8051-microcontroller-architecture-function-applications/ https://www.efxkits.co.uk/8051-microcontroller-architecture-function-applications/#comments Wed, 22 Nov 2017 06:17:06 +0000 https://www.efxkits.co.uk/?p=1704 The 8051 microcontroller was designed in the year 1980 by Intel. Intel re-intended 8051 microcontroller was employed CMOS technology and also the latest edition came into existence with a letter C in the name of the title, for design; microcontroller 80C51 rather than NMOS technology. There are two buses in 8051 microcontrollers one for data […]

The post 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Function and its Applications appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
Architecture of 8051

Architecture of 8051

The 8051 microcontroller was designed in the year 1980 by Intel. Intel re-intended 8051 microcontroller was employed CMOS technology and also the latest edition came into existence with a letter C in the name of the title, for design; microcontroller 80C51 rather than NMOS technology. There are two buses in 8051 microcontrollers one for data and other for a program. This microcontroller includes an 8-bit accumulator and the 8-bit processing unit. It also includes 8-bit B register as majorly functioning blocks and microcontroller programming is done with embedded c language using Keil software. For internal working and processing microcontroller comes with inbuilt RAM. This memory is used for storing the temporary data. It is the random memory that is; its data can get be lost when the power supply to the microcontroller turned OFF. There are various applications with this microcontroller. So, 8051 microcontroller projects have great significance in engineering.

8051 Microcontroller Architecture

The architecture of microcontroller includes the following blocks

8051 Microcontroller Architecture

8051 Microcontroller Architecture

  • Central Processing Unit
  • Interrupts
  • Memory
  • BUS (address bus and data bus)
  • Oscillator

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

For any processing unit, CPU is the brain. It examines and manages all processes that are carried out in the microcontroller.

  • The user has no power over the CPU’s functioning.
  • It interprets program printed In storage space and carries out all of them and do the projected duty.
  • CPU manages various kinds of registers in 8051 microcontrollers.

Interrupt

  • It is a subroutine call that requires the key function of the microcontroller.It helps to perform some other program which is extra important at that point in time.
  • The characteristic of 8051 interrupts is extremely constructive as it aids in emergency cases.
  • Interrupts provide us a method to postpone the current process.
  • It can out a subroutine task and then all over again restart standard program implementation

Memory

  • It requires a program which is a set of commands. This program enlightens microcontroller to function precise tasks
  • These programs require a storage space
  • The memory program of microcontroller is recognized as program memory
  • In common language, it is also known as ROM.
  • The microcontroller also requires a memory to amass data for the short term.
  • It is recognized as data memory and we use RAM for this principle reason
  • The microcontroller includes code memory. It has 4KB ROM and it also includes of RAM of 128 bytes.

BUS

The bus is a set of wires used to transfer the data. These buses include 8, 16 or more cables. It can bear 8bits, 16 bits altogether.

Address Bus

Microcontroller includes 16-bit address bus; It used to transmit the address from CPU to memory

Data Bus

8051 microcontroller includes 8-bits of the data bus. It is used to cart data.

Oscillator

  • Microcontroller is a digital circuit piece and it requires timer for its operation.
  • For this function, microcontroller includes an on-chip oscillator
  • It works as a time source for CPU
  • The productivity thumps of oscillator are steady
  • It facilitates harmonized employment of all pieces of microcontroller

Oscillator Input/Output Port

  • The microcontroller is used in the embedded system to manage the device function.
  • To include microcontroller in other machinery, peripherals or gadgets
  • We require I/O interfacing ports in microcontroller
  • For this microcontroller function, it includes 4 I/O ports to unite it to other peripherals.

Oscillator Timers/ Counters

  • Microcontroller is incorporated with two 16-bit timers and counters
  • The counters are separated into 8-bit registers
  • The timers are used for measuring the intervals, to find out pulse width etc.

Applications of 8051 Microcontroller

The applications of 8051 microcontroller include large amount of machines, mainly because it is simple to incorporate in a project. The following are some of the applications of 8051 microcontroller.

Applications of 8051 Microcontroller

Applications of 8051 Microcontroller

  • Energy Management
  • Touch Screens
  • Automobiles
  • Medical Devices

Advantages of Microcontroller

  • Microcontrollers work as a microcomputer without any digital parts
  • As the higher integration in microcontroller decrease the size and cost of the system
  • Microcontroller usage is very simple and easy for trouble shoot and also maintaining the system.
  • Most of the microcontroller pins are programmable by the user for performing various functions.
  • Interfacing is simple for additional RAM, ROM, I/O ports. Low time needed for performing operations

Disadvantages of Microcontroller

  • The architecture of microcontroller is more complex than that of microprocessors
  • Simultaneously it work limited number of executions
  • It can be used mostly in micro equipments
  • It cannot interface directly with high power devices.

Do you have any innovative project ideas to execute the microcontroller based projects? Then, feel free to share your ideas for getting your project solutions from us and also other readers, by posting in the comments section below. Here is a question for you, what is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller?

The post 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Function and its Applications appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
https://www.efxkits.co.uk/8051-microcontroller-architecture-function-applications/feed/ 1
Thermal Imager Sensor Working and Its Application https://www.efxkits.co.uk/thermal-imaging-sensor-circuit-working-appllication/ https://www.efxkits.co.uk/thermal-imaging-sensor-circuit-working-appllication/#respond Fri, 20 Oct 2017 11:19:42 +0000 https://www.efxkits.co.uk/?p=1688 The thermal image sensor is a benefit to the equipped forces such as the army, air force and navy as of its day and night working ability to do well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the IR radiation produced by all substances above complete zero temperature. The temperature differences of the captured pictures […]

The post Thermal Imager Sensor Working and Its Application appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
Thermal Imaging Camera

Thermal Imaging Camera

The thermal image sensor is a benefit to the equipped forces such as the army, air force and navy as of its day and night working ability to do well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the IR radiation produced by all substances above complete zero temperature. The temperature differences of the captured pictures are signified as a thermogram. With the beginning of IR detector technology, the immense cooled thermal detectors have moving components and difficult cryogenic temperatures have distorted into small, thereby assembling systems harsher requiring less protection.

Thermal imaging has a variety of advantages as well as a large number of applications in defence and military. It is commonly used by the army and navy for border surveillance, law enforcement, in ship collision avoidance and also guidance systems. In the aviation industry, it has very much mitigated the hazards of flying in low-light and nighttime situations. They are extensively used in military aviation to recognize, place and goal the enemy forces. In recent times, they are also being included in civil aviation for health observing of aircrafts.

What is a Thermal Image Sensor?

Thermal imaging is the method of using the heat given off by an object to generate a picture of it. This image sensor works in surroundings without any ambient light and can enter obscurants like fog, haze and smoke. The first thermal image sensor was developed for military applications in the year 1950 and in the year 1960, it was developed by Hughes, Texas instrument and Honeywell. Nowadays, this sensor is used in several applications namely security, industrial, firefighting robot, medical, law enforcement and other industries.

Thermal Image Sensor

Thermal Image Sensor

Image Processing

Image Processing can be defined as any type of signal processing for which the input is taken as an image of a photograph and the o/p may be an image or set of parameters related to the image. For science communication, the two main colour spaces are  CMYK and RGB.

Image Processing

Image Processing

CMYK

This is the subtractive colour refers to the four inks used in magenta, cyan, black, colour printing, and yellow. This model is named as subtractive because links subtract brightness from white.

RGB

An additive colour model in which, RGB (red, green and blue) are added jointly in different ways to regenerate array of colours. Here white is the additive combination of all primary coloured lights.

Thermal Imaging Camera

The term TIC stands for thermal imaging camera records the radiation’s intensity in the IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum and changes it to a visible light. A thermal imaging camera includes five components namely an optic system (lens), the detector (cooled detector and uncooled detector), amplifier, signal processing and display (standard video monitor).

Thermal Imaging Camera

Thermal Imaging Camera

Types of Thermal Image Sensor  Cameras

Thermal image sensor cameras are classified into two types namely cooled thermal imager and un-cooled thermal imager.

Cooled detectors are generally contained in a vacuum sealed case and cryogenically cooled. Cooling is very important for the semiconductor material operation. Cooled IR cameras give better image quality. It is expensive and bulky to generate and run. Cooling is power hungry and time consuming hence the camera requires time to cool down before it can start working again.

Types of Thermal Imaging Cameras

Types of Thermal Imaging Cameras

Un-cooled detectors employ a sensor operating at ambient temperature, or a sensor become stabled at room temperature using control elements. Image quality and resolution tend to be lower than cooled detectors. It is smaller and low cost to generate and run. These imagers can work fast and consumes low power.

Applications of Thermal Imaging

The applications of thermal image sensor include the following.

Applications of Thermal Imaging

Applications of Thermal Imaging

    • Monitoring the condition
    • Inspections of building envelope and energy losses in buildings
    • Thermal mapping

Digital IR thermal imaging in hhealthcare

  • Night visionVeterinary thermal imaging
  • UAV surveillance
  • Research
  • Process control
  • Chemical imaging
  • Agriculture and food industry

Benefits of Thermal Imaging

Benefits of thermal image sensor  in the detection of:

  • Water and Cold air penetration
  • Extreme moisture in building materials
  • Insulation gaps, not enough and roughness
  • Electrical drops, breakers, panels, switches and wire connections
  • Heating and cooling tube placement, air leaks, insulation,
  • Pipe location
  • Pest infestation
  • Special assessment
  • Insurance claims
  • Energy audits

Thermal Imaging Limitations

Thermal image sensor simply displays surface temperatures of solid objects.

  • IR senses the temperature based upon light’s wavelength which is emitted by the object. IR, therefore, does not show the temperature of objects that reflect light, (glass, shiny metal, light coloured objects in direct sunlight).
  • IR does not “see through walls”, but only shows the very small differences in surface temperature of the wall.  An image of areas behind and not in getting in touch with walls depends upon the temperature difference of the area.  It is easier to see warm objects because; they will be burning heat to the not-in-contact surface.
  • Careful modification of the range of temperatures displayed is significant to appropriate imaging and interpretation.

Thus, this is all about thermal image sensor working and its applications. It is an innovative protection inspection program. The early warnings can give really do save lives. It can help you & your corporation to schedule repairs and boost your productivity. As a result, you can also save money. If you have any queries regarding this or to implement any electrical and electronic projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of a thermal image sensor?

 

The post Thermal Imager Sensor Working and Its Application appeared first on Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in Europe.

]]>
https://www.efxkits.co.uk/thermal-imaging-sensor-circuit-working-appllication/feed/ 0