The wireless communication has become a major feature for most of the electronic products. The wireless technology is a process of sending information through invisible waves in the air. Information such as data, voice and videos are carried through the radio frequency of the electromagnetic waves. These electromagnetic signals are transmitted by an enabled device to air or physical environment. The receiver captures these signals and creates a communication bridge between the sender and receiver device.
Exchanging the information between two or more devices is called as a wireless communication; and, it is possible by wireless devices. There are many wireless devices available in the market today, such as RF, Zigbee, RFID, GPS, Bluetooth, GSM, etc. Each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. The communication is possible in one way or two ways wherein one way communication is implemented with the transmitter and receiver devices and two-way communication is by the transceiver devices.
1.1.1 Transmitter and Receiver
The transmitters and receivers are two different devices that can be operated with same frequency. They can easily fit into breadboards and work well with microcontrollers to create a very simple wireless data link. This is a simple communication wherein devices perform either transmitting or receiving operation.
The transceiver is a combination of transmitter and receiver in a single package such as mobile phone and cordless phones in which it is possible to communicate both sides and work with different frequencies.
1.2 Wireless Communication for Real-Time Projects
Most of the real-time projects control various load parameters or variables based on the input data conditions. A wireless communication is required for these projects to carry the virtual information between the machinery to the control room. Consider the below given projects for wireless technology usage.
Vehicle’s Theft Location’s Intimation to the Owner by GPS/GSM
This system consists of a GPS modem which retrieves vehicle’s location information in terms of longitude and latitude values. In an event of a vehicle missing, the GPS modem sends the vehicle information to the concerned authority’s number by SMS through a GSM modem. This is enhanced by GPS and GSM wireless communications.
In a pharmaceutical industry, it is impossible for humans to work in places and areas where bad or foul smell emanates and also in chemical environments; hence, robots can perform the desired operations in place of human beings. Therefore, to control such a robot in desired positions with desired movements, communication is necessary by using RF and Zigbee technologies.
1.3 Advantages of Wireless Communication
A user need not to stick at one place, but can access the communication services at different places with mobile devices.
The wireless controlled devices can be placed where there is no provision or need for any wire to transmit and receive data. Wireless devices thus provide more flexibility for unique applications.
Sharing and transferring files within a network is very fast and thus saves time while maintaining the reliability of the data.
The wireless communication requires software, which is easy to install. Wired technology requires buried cables. If a buried cable gets damaged, it requires repair or replacement, and therefore, the cost of maintenance will be high.