Nowadays, the lack of water purifying is a major problem in rural areas. Because around 800 plus million people suffering every day due to insufficient quantities of water clean and also filtered water. Most of the present technologies available in the market are combating this problem due to high cost and power consuming. The solutions that do not use an extra of power generally need expensive and maintenance of the time-consuming filter. There are several chemical processing mechanisms for purifying the water but, if we use improperly it is hazardous. To overcome this problem with the idea of low cost in mind here is a system, namely “solar energy-based water purification system” that will take an advantage of natural energy in order to power a water purification system.
What is Water Purification System using Solar Energy?
The water purification system using the Solar energy involves in purifying the water for different purposes in house using the solar energy in different ways. Using this for the treatment of water, it has become more common as it is a generally low-technology solution that works to capture the energy and heat from the sun to clean the water for human use and consumption.
Solar water purification system is mainly helpful for rural communities, as they do not have other methods of water purification setup and more importantly, electricity to run such structures. The most helpful feature about solar water purification is that there is no necessity of fuel. It’s exactly due to the lack of fuel that makes solar applications relatively superior to conventional sources of energy as it does not cause pollution) or health hazards associated with pollution.
Block Diagram of Solar Energy based Water Purification System
The main objective of this project is to purify the water using solar energy in rural places using two methods like RO process and UV. We are utilizing solar energy because the amount of electricity is not available in rural areas.Solar energy is available in our country and by using this solar energy, we will generate electricity. The process of water purification system can be done in two methods.
- Reverse Osmosis
- Ultra Violet
The term RO stands for Reverse Osmosis is one kind of technology that is used to eliminate a large majority of pollutants from water by pushing the water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane. By using this method we can remove different types of elements like icons (more than 99% of dissolved salts), dust particles, colloids, organics, bacteria, pyrogens and much more.
The term UV stands for ultraviolet, is an invisible type of electromagnetic radiation that has a smaller wavelength than the light humans can see It carries more energy than visible light and can sometimes break bonds between atoms and molecules, changing the chemistry of materials exposed it Ultraviolet can also cause some substances to produce visible light, a phenomenon is known as fluorescence.
- The electrical characteristic of UV lamp for 110V and 200V
- For 110volts, the electrical characteristics include V= 115V, I= 42.6 mA, P=3.1w, power factor= 0.63, P= 3.83 VAR, P=4.87 VA.
- For 200volts, the electrical characteristics include V= 200V, I= 48.53 mA, P=5.7w, power factor= 0.57, P= 7.74 VAR, P=9.87 VA.
- UV germicidal protects bacteria, yeast, mold spores, Malaga, E.coli
The Most Common Methods for Solar Water Purification System
The most common methods for solar water purification system include the following
SODIS-Solar Water Disinfection
The term SODIS stands for Solar water disinfection, is a low technology, the simple process of cleansing water using solar energy and also solar radiation. This was first introduced in the year 1980 by Aftim Acra et al from the ‘American University of Beirut’. The method includes polluted water being filled in clear PET or glass bottles, which are then visible to the sun for around 6 hours. The ultraviolet rays of sun remove the diarrhoea-causing pathogens, thus making the water right for consumption.
Solar Water Distillation
Solar water distillation method uses a solar still to condense pure water vapor and settles out harmful substances to make clean, pure drinking water. This procedure is used when the water is salty, containing dangerous bacteria, or for settling out full metals and also for purification of sea water.
Solar Water Pasteurization
The solar water pasteurization method involves the use of modest heat or radiation to kill virus – causing microbes. This heat is generated from cookers that trap solar energy. This method establishes to kill bacteria, worms, viruses, and protozoa.
Solar Water Purification
Solar water purification method incorporates electricity produced from solar energy for water cleansing. Solar panels produce power for a battery which is used for separation and purification systems. These constructions are generally mobile and are hugely helpful for tragedy – relief efforts. They also come in numerous sizes, meant for small scale use to marketable/public supply.
From this complete literature review, it is found that numerous methods are developed for purification of water. These are matters to the demand of purified water, quality of water source and the difficult expense. Conventional, Reverse Osmosis systems are presently widespread domestically, but at the cost of sufficiently of waste water. Non-conventional water cleansers like a solar still have unlimited potential, but their usage is insufficient due to minor output rate.
The humidification-dehumidification process is the most suitable option for fresh water invention and combined system for concurrently hot water production.The multi-effect purification method can be used for the bulk production of fresh water. The complete review reveals that there is a necessity to develop a hybrid system of water cleansing which can overcome the limits of all current water purification systems, Pasteurization.
Thus, this is all about different types of solar water purifying systems. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept . Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept about solar energy based projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below.Here is a question for you, what are the applications of solar energy?